Rapid Prototyping - LEISTUNGEN

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Additive manufacturing technologies

ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING

History...

The history of civilization has been linked to the manufacturing capacity of objects and tools: every advance in this area has allowed a progress in society

  • Craftsmanship

  • Industrial revolution (steam machine, S. XVIII - UK)

  • Electricity generation

More recently and to a lesser extent:

  • Production Organization (improvements by 1955 in Japan)

  • Arise and advancement of 3D CAD - CAE - CAM

  • 1986: = SLA stereolithography first additive manufacturing technology (before (1979) - there was a patent on the process of laser sintering powder - SLS)

MANUFACTURING TECHNOLOGIES

1- Technologies that make a material:

Preforms used to obtain the required geometry: plastic and metal injection, forging, drawing, forming, sintering, vacuum casting, extrusion, RIM, sand casting, spinning, etc.)

2- Subtractive technologies:

Obtained by subtracting the required material from a greater geometry (machining, EDM, water cutting, laser cutting, etc).

3- Additive Manufacturing Technologies additive (AM):

Gets the geometry only adding material from CAD-3D geometry.

Advantages of additive manufacturing (AM)

  • Easy creation of complex geometries (for other manufacturing technologies):

    • natural forms

    • geometries with internal recesses

    • fractal designs

    • assemblies avoided joining geometries

  • Easy for ergonomic designs

  • FAST: helps innovation

Applications of Additive Manufacturing (AM)

  • Aircraft industry (Airbus, Boeing) are using these technologies to lighten engine parts, make custom pieces, small series manufacturing, etc.

  • Used for the preparation of an operation in Surgery, make prosthetics, etc.

  • Also used to make medicines (one single daily pill with all the components necessary for a particular patient), electronics, architecture, interior, dental industry, fashion, footwear, toys, food, entertainment, etc.

  • A leading brand of children’s objects has a line of toys to be designed by children and produced using 3D printing

  • Increasingly 3D printing shops exist where the user can request printing their own designs

  • Growth of 20-30% annually

Additive Manufacturing (AM): TYPES OF CURRENT TECHNOLOGIES

  • SLA: STEREOLITHOGRAPHY - 1986 - 3D Systems (USA)

  • SLS: LASER SINTERING Selectica - 1992 - DTM (USA) / EOS (GERMANY)

  • FDM: Deposition of plastic melted THREAD - 1990 - Stratasys (USA)

  • 3DPrinting: LICENSE M.I.T. - 1993 - Z CORP (USA), VOXELJET or ProMetal (Exone, 1996)

  • LOM: LAMINATED OBJECT MODELING (currently not active)

  • POLYJET: 3D SYSTEMS (USA) AND OBJET - 2000 - (ISRAEL)

  • REP RAP - 2005 (UK) - similar to FDM

  • DLP: similar to SLA (Digital Light Processing)

  • SLM / DMLS: Selective Laser Melting (as sintering but with "dense" results)

  • MULTIJET FUSION – HP – 2016

  • "MULTI ARBURG" - 2016

Additive Manufacturing (AM): GENERAL

  1. Drawing in 3D CAD (thinking about the technology to be used)

  2. STL FORMAT TRANSFORM

  3. ORIENTATING AND PLACING (considering the technology to be used)

SLA: STEREOLITHOGRAPHY

A UV laser polymerizes the surface (between 0.05 and 0.2 mm) of a epoxy resin container: a platform grid-shaped supports the manufactured part.

There are SLA machines small and very accurate and others very large with tolerances of ± 0.5 mm. At the same manufacturing time of the part brackets for securing it to the shaped base must be manufactured to ensure that the part does not fall, it does not move and it’s not deformed.

Once the part has been manufactured it goes through a cleansing process, removing brackets and post-cured in an oven of ultraviolet light to be completely be solidified.

SLA: advantages

  • Rapid and complex manufacturing of prototypes.

  • Excellent reproduction of details and precision of the parts.

  • Fast.

  • Good surface finishing.

  • It’s possible to paste separately constructed pieces of parts.

  • It’s possible to create very thin walls.

  • It allows different surface finishes and paintings.

  • There are different materials of manufacture: transparent, flexible, translucent.

  • Only spents the material used for the piece and its holders.

SLA: disadvantages

  • Fragility (depending on the resin used)

  • Need to use supports for stabilizing protrounding surfaces during manufacture of the parts

  • Not very demanding mechanical and thermal tests

  • Minimum thickness 0.6mm.

  • Not able to nest on other pieces during manufacture

  • Sensitive to moisture and temperature material

  • High maintenance cost

  • Initial cost of the volume of the bath

  • Very expensive machines

  • Need an isolated room (no UV and some temperature control)

  • Need for UV oven and cleaning station with alcohol

SLA: applications

  • Technical offices, departments of R & D, design centers in different industries, architecture, medicine, which require:

    • Master piece silicone mold making.

    • Functional prototypes.

    • Models for presentation.

    • Parts that will require a surface finish.

    • Dimensional high quality parts..

SLS: LASER SINTERING

  • This process consists of three stages:

    1. In an inert hot chamber a layer of powder material is deposited in the work area

    2. It’s selectively melted by a laser or an electron beam

    3. The work area makes a downward displacement equivalent to the height of a layer in order to repeat the process

SLS: advantages of sintered plastic powder

  • Parts with functional materials: PA12m, PA11, PP, PEEK, PE, PA + FV, PA + FC, elastomer, sand, etc.

  • Fast: ability to make many pieces at a time (productivity).

  • Parts of pieces separately constructed can be pasted.

  • Very thin walls can be created.

  • It allows different surface finishes, painted, waterproofed.

  • Suitable for small series of small to medium pieces (unfinished).

  • Cheaper (in general) than the SLA manufactured parts.

  • Complete freedom of design: no media, dust supports the workpiece.

  • Ability to nest parts (one inside the other).

  • Ease of gluing and dyeing.

  • High temperatures.

  • Chemical resistance.

  • No post cure.

SLS: disadvantages of sintered plastic powder

  • Camera dimensions: 300x300x400 std (EOS P700 700x380x580mm)

  • Deformation in large pieces: better to manufacture the part divided in pieces and then glue them.

  • Rugged appearance (layer thickness from 0.08 mm)

  • Very expensive machines

  • Room necessary to avoid fill dust around. Need for multiple workstations to mix new and used material and for sandblasting the parts.

SLS: sintered plastic powder applications

  • Dimensional product validation and functional models

  • Master to make silicone molds or tools

  • Ability to use material for casting (lost wax casting)

  • Small molds for thermoforming

FDM: FUSED DEPOSITION MATERIAL

Additive manufacturing system where a head extrudes a plastic thread (initially ABS): in professional machines this process occurs in a chamber with controlled atmosphere: "3D home printers" don’t have much control or there is none.

Once manufactured the piece has been manufactured it has to go through a cleansing process, and the brackets must be removed.

FDM: advantages

  • Wide variety of materials: ABS, ABS / PC, PC, PLA, high performance

  • Possibility to purchase low-cost machines (and low performance)

  • Supports are easily removed

  • No post cure

  • Possibility of very large pieces manufacturing without deformation

  • Cleaning the area around

FDM: disadvantages

  • Slow (compared to SLS)

  • Roughness

FDM: Applications

  • Dimensional product validation and functional models

  • Master to make silicone molds or tools

  • Possibility of using materials to make finished parts for the aerospace industry

  • Possibility of chrome ABS parts

POLYJET or MULTIJET: OBJET, 3D SYSTEMS

This technology is based on a head moving in X and Y depositing droplets of a resin cured with light: the base supporting the lower geometry or head rises as the part is manufactured. There are machines that can deposit various materials: even these materials can be mixed to get new mechanical characteristics. This eliminates the need to design and / or manufacture these pieces separately: also it allows you to use different colors.

In 2012 it merged with Stratays OBJET. 3D Systems has similar machines.

POLYJET or MULTIJET: advantages

  • Wide variety of materials: elastomers, rigid, transparent

  • Ability to mix materials creating new materials or parts with different materials

  • Easy supports removability

  • No postcure

  • Possibility of manufacture large parts without deformation

  • Cleaning the area around: ideal for offices without workshop

  • Surfaces of parts made quite smooth

  • High accuracy

POLYJET or MULTIJET: disadvantages

  • Slow (compared to SLS)

  • Materials with little technical mechanical characteristics

  • Parts poorly suited to be sanded

POLYJET or MULTIJET: applications

  • All those industries that require prototypes with different materials. Small series of pieces without major mechanical requirements.

OTHER SYSTEMS: DLP

DLP (Digital Light Processing): various manufacturers use this technology to their machines of additive manufacturing (AM). Tipically they use an acrylic resin or a compound with wax, laser cured. It has high accuracy: more and larger machines are on the market. You need some material stock (shallow bowl).

Envisiontech (Germany, 2002) has machines to 450x450x450 mm with 0.05 mm resolution 20 mm / h speed Z.

OTHER SYSTEMS: LOM

LOM: LAMINATED OBJECT MODELING

This technology uses a sheet of paper, once cut with a cutter or laser, and were piling to form the geometry to be manufactured.

It had the advantage that the raw material was cheap, but this absorved too much humidity and was easily deformed.

Later arise into the market new machines with DIN A4 sheets calibrated and uncalibrated that made prototypes that were very cheap. They have not had much success (3D Solid, etc).

MCOR Technologies (Ireland, 2008), color printer with A4.

OTHER SYSTEMS: Voxeljet, ProMetal, Solidscape

Voxeljet and ProMetal: Manufacturing system of sand molds for casting metal parts and powder methacrylate (PMMA) manufacturing. They have large machines.

They have also developed sintered metal machines.

They use the same technology developed at MIT (3DP) that also use the Z Corp.

Solidscape (1994): in 2010 it was bought by Stratasys (FDM): small printer with good resolution, very good surface finish, based on wax impression with a head.

OTHER SYSTEMS: 3D Printing - REP RAP

Most "3D printers" machines use the FDM technology, but simply.

The REP RAP project began in 2006 with the idea of make machines that could be cloned. The designs of the components and the software of these machines are available.

OTHER SYSTEMS: HP and ARBURG

  • HP, the manufacturer of printers and other computer products, for years has been developing a "MULTIJET FUSION".

  • ARBURG, one of the largest manufacturers of plastic injection molding machines, introduced in 2013 a prototype of a machine for additive manufacturing (AM) that used the same plastic that could be used in their injector machines.

OTHER SYSTEMS: DMLS - SLM (Both metal sintered)

  • EOS (Germany, 1989), RENISHAW (USA bought German patent MTT 2011), 3D Systems (USA), ARCAM (Sweden, 1997, 4 kW electron projector), SLM (formerly MTT and before MCP, Germany) Concept laser (Hofmann Group, Germany), Höganäs (Sweden), Sciaky (USA, 2009)

VACUUM CASTING

  • Another system for rapid manufacturing of small series and prototypes is the vacuum casting in silicone molds. This technology allows the manufacturing of parts in polyurethane resin using a silicone mold (usually from a master manufactured in AM).

    • Polyurethane resins have very different characteristics: flexibility, transparency, high temperature strength, various fillers, fireproof (V0)

  • To perform the necessary vacuum casting it’s necessary a vacuum machine to allow the two components that will form the polyurethane within the chamber, separated and with the possibility to mix and cast the result into the mold.